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            信息搜索: 熱門:春耕 化肥行情 尿素價格
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            化肥定額制能走多遠?


            農資網 2019年8月21日 19:09 來源:中國農資傳媒
            關鍵詞:化肥

            浙江率先探索化肥定額制,改變的是農民的施肥習慣,改變的是農業生產方式??
              近日,當浙江長興縣茶農周慶林得知浙江省率先試行化肥定額制時,他第一時間的回應是,這種政策對茶農來說是件大好事。他說:“現在大家不愿意多施化肥,我們種植的有機茶施用的化肥就很少,茶葉口感更好,所以我支持。”化肥施得多了,想把化肥用量減下來,這是周慶林和鄉親們的心聲。
              日前,浙江省農業農村廳、浙江省財政廳于日前發布《關于試行農業投入化肥定額制的意見》,明確規定:到2022年,浙江省將全面建立主要作物化肥投入的定額制度,化肥、氮肥用量比2018年下降5%,并就水稻、茶樹、柑橘等十幾種作物給出了化肥最高限量值。
              那么,對周慶林這樣的農民來講,試行化肥定額制在現實操作中有哪些困難?對政府來講,如何才能更好地推動定額制落地?這一定額制究竟給農業生產帶來什么?為此,《中國農資》記者進行了深入采訪。
              現 狀
              大勢所趨,化肥減量仍有空間
              近年來,浙江省大力實施化肥減量增效行動,單位種植面積化肥施用量連續6年實現負增長,但化肥減量仍有較大空間。據浙江大學教授石偉勇介紹:“目前,浙江省的節肥空間還有10%-20%。試行定額制是為了接近用肥效率比較高的發達國家的水平。目前通過有機肥替代、水肥一體化等技術的組合,可以把化肥利用率從原來的30%-40%提高到50%以上。”
              浙江是一個農業小省,其山地和丘陵占74.63%,耕地面積占比少,有“七山一水二分田”之說。雖然耕地面積很小,但浙江省的農業卻十分發達。其中綠茶產量中國第一、蠶繭產量中國第二、柑橘產量中國第三、毛竹產量中國第一,有這樣的成績離不開較高的化肥用量。
              以茶樹為例,周慶林告訴記者,一般的茶樹復合肥用量是100斤/畝。而在浙江安吉,農資經銷商潘江平則根據多年的經驗提供了一組數據,白茶冬肥復合肥80-100斤/畝,有的茶農還要追施兩次復合肥,每次追施30-40斤/畝。也就是說,在茶樹的用肥方面,最低為80斤/畝,最高為180斤/畝。如果以45%含量的復合肥折純的話,最高施肥總量為81斤(折純),最低施肥總量為36斤(折純)。而根據浙江省的最高限量值為56斤(折純),處于中間位置。所以總體來講,施肥水平差異化較大,有一部分農民的施肥量仍高于最高限量值。
              臺州農資經銷商陳衛平告訴記者,實際上水稻等大田作物的過量施肥問題已經得到了較好的控制,但目前主要是蔬菜大棚等經濟作物區的過量施肥問題比較嚴重。他說:“經濟作物都是超標用的,大棚一畝地要用到200斤化肥(實物量),柑橘的用肥量是按照樹齡大小來定的,一般一棵樹用1-2斤肥(實物量)。”
              針對目前的施肥水平,浙江惠多利公司經理毛連松表示,浙江目前試行的化肥最高限量在大田上推進是沒有問題,但是在經濟作物上步子有點大,可能不太容易實現。
              記者按照浙江省近幾年來單位面積平均施肥量與最高限量值之間做了一下比較。單季稻畝近幾年平均施肥總量為35公斤(折純),氮肥22公斤(折純);最高限量值的化肥總量為26公斤(折純),氮肥為17公斤(折純)。最高限量值比當前的平均施肥水平總量減少了25.7%,氮肥減少了22.7%。以茶樹為例,近幾年畝平均施肥總量為41公斤(折純),氮肥27公斤(折純);最高限量值的化肥總量為28公斤(折純),其中氮肥為25公斤(折純)。最高限量值比當前的平均施肥水平總量減少了31.7%,其中氮肥減少了7.4%。茶樹化肥總用量需減少近三分之一才能達到定額制的要求。因此,不管是大田作物還是經濟作物,目前的施肥量總體還是遠高于最高限量值,減肥目標任重道遠。
              落 地
              大數據管控,技術配套要跟得上
              為了達到化肥定額制規定的施肥限量值,浙江省也配套了相關的支持。按照規定,實施化肥定額制,是通過制定主要作物化肥投入定額標準,綜合采取免費測土、科學配方、合理替代、精準施肥等措施,達到減少農田化肥投入、保障耕地綜合產能、優化生態環境質量的目標。
              石偉勇曾對定額制試點進行調研,對定額制有較深的了解。據他介紹說:“近幾年,我們在水稻、茶葉等很多經濟作物上全面開展了定額制試驗示范,已經積累了大量的數據。浙江省依據近幾年減肥增效的工作制定了目前試行的化肥定額制,這實際上是全省發展綠色農業的一個部分。”
              據他介紹,浙江省政府將綠色發展先行縣納入綠色考核的范疇,化肥定額施用將是重要指標之一。他說:“現在我們主要是對一些合作社、大戶利用大數據來實現對他們的管控。以后對經營主體的考核,未來會有一些獎懲制度出臺。”
              石偉勇表示,目前利用大數據管控只是一個方面,他說:“試行定額制,我們的技術措施必須要跟上。目前各個縣的肥料管理、肥料投入水平、土壤類型不一樣,所以對配方肥的要求也不一樣,但是我們總體要把化肥控制在一定的限量范圍,同時還要提倡有機肥的替代等。總的來說,是要通過技術組合來實現定額制的實施。”
              但就配方肥這一塊來講,浙江當地的農民并不是特別熱衷。毛連松表示,浙江的經濟作物區畝投入很高,有的一畝地要投入上萬元,所以農民對用肥都很謹慎,他們更傾向于施用進口的大品牌化肥,這樣可以保證產出,對配方肥用得很少。他建議說:“未來在推廣配方肥方面,要進一步提高國產配方肥的質量,真正讓農民用得放心。”據了解,在推動定額制落地的過程中,浙江省將要把配方肥的年施用量保持在30萬噸,從而提高精準施肥的面積。
              臺州農資經銷商陳衛平則表示,浙江各地區的土壤情況、氣候條件不一樣,需要不同的技術組合。他說:“就臺州來說,一面靠海、一面是山區,每個地方的小氣候、土壤狀況都不一樣,所以所施用的專用肥、噴藥都是不一樣的。”因此這就要求各地圍繞耕地地力、作物生產等實際情況,研究出臺適合當地的化肥投入定額標準。
              另外浙江省要求水肥一體化技術每年實施面積超過50萬畝,專業化施肥達到40%,通過改變施肥方式提高化肥利用率。
              總的來說,在技術配套上,浙江省還有很長的路要走,包括配方肥、水肥一體化、專業施肥方式的推廣都還需要加大力度。
              引 導
              增施有機肥,走綠色發展之路
              定額是指從總體的生產工作過程來考查,規定出社會平均必需的消耗數量標準,這種標準就稱為定額。
              據了解,浙江省試行化肥定額制一個重要保障措施就是增加有機肥的施用量,確保商品有機肥年施用量保持100萬噸以上,從而實現對化肥的有效替代。
              石偉勇表示:“一直以來我們強調礦肥營養,所以化肥用得多。接下來是要把有機肥產業做好,要把有機肥變成有機營養的提供者,通過有機營養和無機營養相結合的方式達到化肥減施。”他表示,這種方法不僅可以培肥土壤,同時還可以保證農產品的優質安全。
              農資經銷商在推廣商品有機肥的過程中也有一定的阻礙。陳衛平表示,目前土壤里的有機質越來越少了,有機質消耗的太多,又沒有得到補充。但是現在商品有機肥也不容易推廣,因為很多有機肥質量不過關。農資經銷商洪偉校表示,現在實行化肥定額對農業來說也是一種出路,化肥減了,有機肥用量必然上升,那么我們的土壤會更健康,水果的品質會更好,在市場上也更有競爭力。所以現在要做的事情是把坑農害農的產品清理出市場,這樣減肥才能落到實處,農民才有信心。因此,要試行定額制,不僅要做好技術配套,還要凈化市場,讓農民真正用上優質的化肥和有機肥。
              對于周慶林來說,為了生產有機茶,他很早就用上了有機肥。他說:“按照茶樹的最高限量值施肥,有機肥的用量就要提升,可以用到400斤左右。”雖然人工成本會高一些,但是有機茶的市場價格也會高。
              由此可見,不管是農資經營者還是農戶都認識到了增施有機肥的必要性,但是市場如何管控仍需要涉農部門深入研究,務必保證農民用肥用得放心。
              總之,試行化肥定額制對促進農業綠色發展是一件大事。化肥定額制的落地,改變的是農民的施肥習慣,改變的是農業生產方式,更是引導農民加快了農業標準化生產的步伐,提升我國農產品品質和競爭力也將邁出實質的一步。但愿化肥定額制真正落地,并從浙江走向全國!

            ( 責任編輯:YanBO)
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