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            农膜:由大变强之路怎么走?


            农资网 2015年7月3日 10:33 来源:中国化工报
            关键词:农膜
            为满足农业生产的需求,在历经多年的技术创新和科技研发后,我国农用塑料制品产业创造了多个世界第一:农膜生产量世界第一;农膜覆盖面积世界第一,其中地膜覆盖面积3.8亿亩,是世界其他所有国家覆盖面积总和的1.6倍。我国农塑制品工业只用了27年时间,就走完了由仿制到自主开发的全过程,把一个只能生产由树脂做成空白棚膜和空白地膜的国家,变成了拥有10多个树脂品种、40多个商品名称的农用塑料薄膜和制品大国。
              这一成绩的取得实属不易,也令人自豪,不过冷静下来细细一想,现在还真不到庆功的时候。就在刚刚闭幕的中国塑料加工工业协会农用薄膜专业委员会年会上,中塑协常务副理事长曹俭就指出:我国农膜产量虽然位居世界第一,占世界农膜产量的60.5%,堪称农膜大国,但仅此而已。我国并不是农膜品牌大国,更不是农膜强国。农膜行业要由大变强,还有很长的路程要走。
              成绩:
              产量稳居世界首位
              行业技术进步明显
              农膜专委会主任曹志强告诉中国化工报记者,2014年是我国农膜行业发展较快的一年,全国农膜总产量达到260万吨。其中棚膜118万吨,覆盖面积约6160万亩;地膜142万吨,覆盖面积约3.8亿亩,无论产量还是覆盖面积均居世界首位。农膜的应用,为提高土地产出率、增强农业抗灾能力、促进种植结构优化作出了巨大贡献,在农业现代化和新农村建设中发挥着越来越大的作用。
              据了解,当前我国农膜行业发展呈现三个特点。
              一是产量恢复高速增长态势。2012年之前,我国农膜产量连续3年以超过10%的增长率高速增长;受国际金融危机影响,2012年农膜产量增长率降至7.74%;2013年是走出低谷的一年,增长率回升至13.6%;进入2014年,农膜行业保持旺盛活力,增长率达到15.7%,恢复高速增长态势,且延续至2015年;今年一季度,农膜产量同比增长接近 20%。
              二是中部农膜企业崛起,增长迅速。目前,河南农膜产量接近甚至可能超过山东,对于均衡我国农膜产业格局起到举足轻重的作用。
              三是中西部主要省份农膜产量首次高于东部沿海省份,我国农膜产量的重心开始逐步向中西部地区倾斜。
              当然,农膜行业产销量的快速增长,与外部环境条件的支持有着密切的关系。首先是国内外大环境为农膜产业快速发展提供了良好条件。其次是多年的实践使农民认识到增产增收、发家致富离不开农膜。有一条顺口溜说得好:种上一个棚,当年就脱贫;卖完两棚瓜,小车开回家;户均三棚菜,小楼都能盖。这表达了农民对农膜的认可和增产增收后的成就感,是农膜产业经久不衰的力量源泉。再次是相对于工业现代化,农业现代化的程度要低得多。由于基础面较低,特别是中西部地区普及程度不是特别高,在初始阶段增长速度相对较高,带动了农膜行业的快速发展。
              中塑协副秘书长田岩介绍说,近年我国农膜产业呈现旺盛发展趋势。预计2015年将突破280万吨。
              田岩表示,这些年,我国农膜行业取得了不少成绩。
              一是产品结构得到优化,品种数量翻番。“十一五”末,农膜高档、中档和低档产品比例为2%:38%:60%;“十二五”末这一比例将达到 5%:45%:50%,高档与中档产品都提高了份额,低档产品所占份额减少了10%。产品结构得到进一步优化的同时,农膜品种由“十一五”末的20种,至 “十二五”末达到40多种,翻了一番。
              二是产业集中度提高,过剩产能有所降低。2010年,行业内年产万吨以上骨干企业只有30家,年产3000~1万吨的企业只有50家;而目前这两类企业的数量分别达到42家和不足百家,产业集中度有所提高。
              三是行业吨产品能耗下降了15%以上。“十一五”期间,农膜中高档产品份额由原来的40%提高到50%,新增加的10%的产品由原来使用寿命不足1年提高到了2~3年,甚至更长。这意味着,在同样的能耗下,相当于多生产了约15%以上的产品,使整个行业吨产品能耗下降了15%以上。
              四是科技成果丰硕,高端产品研发取得突破性进展。2014年,农膜行业获得中国塑料加工工业协会和轻工业联合会奖励的各类项目共22个,这些项目代表了行业发展的先进水平。此外,我国在涂覆液、涂覆装置、涂覆膜工业化生产等方面达到世界先进水平,其中流滴性能快速检测法、薄型耐候功能膜以及转光膜的研制与产业化均居国际前列。
              不足:
              档次质量有待提高
              核心技术亟须突破
              农膜专委会秘书长刘敏告诉记者,农膜行业“十二五”期间虽然取得重大进步,但与世界先进水平的差距还很大。
              比如,目前国外发达国家农膜产品高档、中档与低档产品的比例,一般为20%:50%:30%,其中高中档产品占到70%,而我国高中档产品仅占50%左右,而低档产品供过于求,同质化程度严重;占86%的中小微企业的生产工艺、装备水平、生产经营状况还比较落后,亟须加大改造力度;整个行业的利润率偏低,有的骨干企业利润率甚至达不到1%,资金短缺制约企业技术创新、转型升级;农膜市场仍然存在无序竞争,一些企业以次充好、以低价冲击市场,既损害农民利益,又干扰了市场的正常秩序。总之,目前农膜行业的发展还不能完全满足现代化农业的需要。这就要求企业不断创新、提升质量、加速改造,以适应市场变化的需求。
              刘敏表示,当前农膜行业发展中亟待突破的关键技术和核心技术是:高透明与长寿命多功能棚膜产业化;长效光生态、光转换农膜生产技术;生物基塑料加工及装备技术;废旧地膜回收与高值化利用;长效流滴消雾功能棚膜及聚合物基纳米复合涂液推广;农用功能性覆盖材料的功效延长技术与应用;农膜增薄涂层涂布装置技术研究等。这些是农膜专委会结合行业发展实际,组织力量深入调查研究后提出来的,代表农膜行业新技术的发展方向,企业要紧紧围绕这些关键技术及核心技术进行研究,力争取得新的突破。
              方向:
              以创新实现产品功能化
              推进降解农膜开发应用
              “十三五”期间,我国农膜行业将以怎样的姿态迎接新的挑战?《农膜行业“十三五”发展规划指导意见(草案)》提出了四个方面的发展目标:一是规模以上农膜企业农膜产量年增长率维持在8%~10%的区间,通过提质增效,逐步提高主营业务收入和利润率;二是高、中、低端产品产量比例由目前的5%:45%:50%,达到10%:50%:40%;三是年产农膜万吨以上的企业由目前的42家增加到50家;四是通过开发新产品和设备改造,使吨产品能耗每年降低2%,5年共节能降耗10%,为我国由农膜大国向农膜强国的转变奠定扎实基础。
              《草案》提出的农膜行业重点任务有:以创新驱动引领企业转型升级,加快建立以企业为主体的产、学、研、用协同创新体系,培养一批能够引领产业变革的创新型骨干企业;继续组织企业参与农膜行业标准、国家标准制订,争取达到国际先进水平;积极组织企业参加可控全生物降解地膜农田应用试验;降解地膜是今后农膜应用的方向,对治理白色污染、解决地膜残留、改善生态环境起着重要作用,农膜专委会将进一步支持降解地膜的研制开发推广应用。
              在农膜产品发展方向上,《草案》指出:我国农膜产品的发展方向是功能化。具体而言,棚膜向长寿、流滴、消雾等功能发展,普及推广功能与寿命同步的涂覆型流滴、保温棚膜,研究完善和推广转紫外光、绿光为红光、蓝紫光等高效光生态膜;地膜向保护环境和清洁生产方向努力,加大功能性地膜的开发和新材料开发应用,发展普及长寿流滴除草增温防虫等功能性地膜,加快新型耐老化地膜的研制与应用;特别关注全生物降解地膜的农田实验和示范进度,向无残留降解地膜方向发展。
              针对《草案》提出的“特别关注生物降解地膜、向无残留降解地膜方向发展”的努力目标,全国农业技术推广服务中心首席专家、中国农用塑料应用技术学会会长张真和做出了这样的解读:我国地膜覆盖栽培的引进推广虽然已经取得了巨大成功,但随着技术的发展进步,仍有50%以上的推广应用潜力有待挖掘,因此要大力推进地膜残留污染治理。
              首先要坚定不移地坚持废旧地膜回收与资源化利用,大力推广高强度、耐老化、易回收地膜。一是尽快完成地膜国标的修订、发布;二是加强监管,严把出厂关;三是强化市场监管,严惩不法经销商;四是加快研制经济实用的废旧地膜回收机械,提高回收效率;五是设立废旧地膜资源化利用技术与装备研发;六是合理布局构建废旧收购网点,健全废旧地膜的回收—交售—转运—资源化利用产业链;七是深入研发适期早揭膜农艺及其配套的栽培管理技术;八是推进农业生态环境保护法规制定,对常规PE地膜实行强制回收,资源化利用,不得擅自处理。
              其次是要坚定不移地支持可控降解地膜的研发与示范推广。一是加强可控全生物降解地膜的工艺配方优化研究、工业化生产与农田应用试验示范;二是提升PE光/热氧降解地膜的工艺技术水平;三是加强光/热复合降解嫁接生物降解地膜的成膜工艺与配方优化研制、工业化生产与农田应用试验示范;四是积极参与引进开发基于PE的酶/益生菌降解地膜的工艺配方研究、工业化生产与农田应用试验示范;五是国家有关部门应设立重大项目,支持可控降解地膜的技术研发与农田应用试验。
              再次要制定激励政策。一是出台补贴政策,让广大农民和农业生产经营组织不因采用环保型地膜而增加覆盖栽培成本,避免地膜覆盖栽培面积因禁止生产销售10μ以下厚度的PE地膜而徘徊萎缩;二是出台扶持政策,对从事废旧地膜资源化利用和生物降解树脂合成的企业(项目),给予税收减免、享受大工业电价等优惠政策;三是加大以消除地膜污染为目标的农业清洁生产和生物降解地膜示范专项的资金规模,扩大项目的覆盖面;四是推动建立地膜污染治理责任制,把合理布局废旧地膜收购网点的责任落实到农区基层政府和职能部门;五要加强地膜污染监测。
              张真和强调,农用塑料制品工业是现代农业的重要标志,是朝阳产业。目前,国家正在建设农业清洁生产示范项目,2015~2020年将建成8亿亩集中连片、旱涝保收的高标准农田,实现农药化肥用量零增长,使耕地酸化、盐渍化、污染等问题得到有效控制。这些都给农用塑料制品工业的发展提供了新契机,塑料企业特别是农膜企业要抓住这个机遇,开拓创新,以实现更大的发展。
            (作者:杜晓枫      责任编辑:YanBO)
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